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    2020-08-12


    of teaching and research experience in different universities/organizations. His current research interests include resource management and traffic control in wired and wireless networks, Cloud Computing, traffic measurement and analysis for monitoring quality of service, mobility and cache management in Information-Centric Networking, and access control mechanisms for distributed content storage. He is a senior member of the IEEE (USA).
    Dr. Atif Khan completed his Ph.D. from Univer-siti Teknologi Malaysia(UTM). He worked on Multi-document abstractive summarization, a subfield of text mining. He introduced semantic based, genetic se-mantic based and semantic graph based approaches for multi-document abstractive summarization. Besides this, his research interest includes recommender sys-tem and opinion mining, and currently supervising students in these research areas.
    Dr. Yasir Faheem is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Computer Science Department at COM-SATS University, Islamabad. He graduated with a Ph.D. degree in Networks and Information Technologies from Université Paris Nord, France, in 2012. Prior to that, he MK2206 earned MS Research degree with specialization in Networks and Distributed Systems from Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, France, in 2008. He is primarily inter-ested in routing, medium access control and security related issues in IoTs, MANETs, SDNs and CRNs.
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Biosensors and Bioelectronics
    journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/bios
    An electrochemical biosensor based on Hairpin-DNA modified gold T
    electrode for detection of DNA damage by a hybrid cancer drug intercalation
    Katherine Lozano Untiverosa,b, Emanuella Gomes da Silvaa, Fabiane Caxico de Abreua, Edeildo Ferreira da Silva-Júniorc, João Xavier de Araújo-Juniorc, Thiago Mendoça de Aquinoa, Stephanie M. Armasb, Ricardo Olímpio de Mourad, Francisco J.B. Mendonça-Juniord, Vanessa Lima Serafimd, Karin Chumbimuni-Torresb, a Chemistry and Biotechnology Institute (IQB), Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Campus A.C. Simões, Tabuleiro dos Martins, Maceió, AL, 57072-970, Brazil b University of Central Florida. NanoBioelectrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816, United States c Nursing and Pharmacy School (ESENFAR), Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Campus A.C. Simões, Tabuleiro dos Martins, Maceió, AL, 57072-970, Brazil d Laboratory of Synthesis and Drug Delivery, State University of Paraíba (UEPB), Campus V, 58071-160 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
    Keywords:
    Stem-loop DNA (SL-DNA) Double-stranded DNA biosensor DNA damage
    Hybrid acridine-thiophene anticancer drug Gold electrode 
    An efficient and new electrochemical biosensor for detection of DNA damage, induced by the interaction of the hybrid anti-cancer compound (7ESTAC01) with DNA, was studied by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The biosensor consists of a Stem-Loop DNA (SL-DNA) probe covalently attached to the gold electrode (GE) surface that hybridizes to a complementary DNA strand (cDNA) to form a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The inter-action and DNA damage induced by 7ESTAC01 was electrochemically studied based on the oxidation signals of the electroactive nucleic acids on the surface of the GE by DPV. As a result, the SL-DNA/GE and dsDNA/GE were tested with the reduced 7ESTAC01, showing the voltammetric signal of guanine and adenine, increase in the presence of 7ESTAC01. Under optimum conditions, the dsDNA/GE biosensor exhibited excellent DPV response in the presence of 7ESTAC01. The bonding interaction between 7ESTAC01 and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was confirmed by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, dynamic simulations (performed to investigate the DNA structure under physiological conditions), and molecular docking. Theoretical results showed the presence of hydrogen bonding and intercalation in the minor groove of DNA, involving hydrophobic interactions.
    1. Introduction
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is considered the building block for genetic information. As such, DNA is also susceptible to chemical modifications via oxidation/reduction pathways, or interaction with small molecules (Arnold et al., 2015). Electrochemical detection of DNA interaction with small molecules has also been applied in the design of novel pharmaceutical drugs (Vyskočil et al., 2010; Aydoğdu et al., 2014).
    A variety of small molecules are known to interact with DNA non-covalently through (i) groove binding interactions, (ii) electrostatic interactions, or (iii) intercalations between the stacked base pairs of the double-stranded DNA (Kovacic and Wakelin, 2001; Kalanur et al., 2009). Vibrational spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance are just a few of the techniques employed to investigate the binding modes, thermodynamic